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The Effects of an Ambiguous, Negative Sign Prompt and a Clearly-Stated Positive Sign Prompt on Intentions to Litter

Cases
Horsley, A. D. (1988). The unintended effects of a posted sign on littering attitudes and stated intentions. Journal of Environmental Education, 19, 3, 10-14.
Thirty percent of participants responded that the "Please save our landscapes: don't litter" prompt would make them think about the litter problem. Furthermore, 20% indicated tha…

Improving Participation in a Newspaper Recycling Program in Apartment Complexes Using Prompts

Cases
Reid, D. H., Luyben, P. D., Rawers, R. J. & Bailey, J. S. (1976). Newspaper recycling behavior: the effects of prompting and proximity of containers. Environment and Behavior, 8, 471-481.
There was an increase of over 50% in the weight of recycled paper following the implementation of prompts and proximity.

Using Verbal and Visual Prompts to Reduce Litter in High Schools in Perth, Australia

Cases
Houghton, S. (1993). Using verbal and visual prompts to control littering in high schools. Educational Studies, 19, 3, 247-254.
Verbal and visual prompts were most effective when used in combination. On average, the number of littered items was reduced to 2.5 in the cafeteria compared to 7.3 items before …

Encouraging Environmentally Friendly Shopping using Prompts, Commitment and Norms

Cases
Analysis of electronic inventories indicated that the prompts did not increase the purchase of targeted items. That is, items that were identified with shelf-talkers (prompts) as…

Washington State Promotes the Purchase of Recycled Content Products With Prompts in the "Get in the Loop, Buy Recycled" Program

Cases
King County commission for Marketing Recyclable Materials & Atwood, A. M. (1994). Consumer research survey: Knowledge, attitudes, and purchase of recycled-content products. King County Commission for Marketing Recyclable Materials.
During the 1994-1995 program year, "Get in the L, Buy Recycled" has a budget of US$ 275,000. Funding for the campaign came from the State of Washington, participating recycled pr…

Conserving Energy and Water at University of California at Santa Cruz with the Use of Norms and Prompts

Cases
Aronson, E. & O'Leary, M. (1982-83). The relative effectiveness of models and prompts on energy conservation: A field experiment in a shower room. Journal of Environmental Systems, 12, 3, 219-224.
When only the sign prompt was used to encourage water conservation, 6% of bathers turned off the water while they soaped up. In contrast, when a fellow university student modeled…

Using Block Leaders and Prompts to Improve Participation in Curbside Recycling in Denver Colorado

Cases
Although all interventions improved particiaptions, it is clearly the block leaders who had the most significant impact on behavior. Fully one third of residents were recycling by…

Increasing Participation in Curbside Paper Recycling Using Verbal Prompts in Chicago

Cases
Spaccarelli, S., Zolik, E. & Jason, L. A. (1989-1990). Effects of verbal prompting and block characteristics on participation in curbside newspaper recycling. Journal of Environmental Systems, 19, 1, 45-57.
The information only group had only 2.4% of participants recycle at least once during the 21 weeks following the intervention. In contrast, 30% of the information and verbal prom…

Using a Uniquely Designed Waste Recepticle as a Prompt to Control Litter in a Shopping Mall in Blacksburg, Virginia

Cases
Geller, E. S., Brasted, W. S. & Mann, M. F. (1979). Waste receptacle designs as interventions for litter control. Journal of Environmental Systems, 9, 2, 145-160.
Overall, the weekly average weight of the refuse in regular cans was 9.34 lbs. To compare, the average weight of trash in the bird cans was 15.05 lbs. Moreover, the bird cans ha…

Using Prompts to Decrease the Amount of Lawn-Walking on a University Campus

Cases
Smith, J.M. (1992). Several antecedent strategies in reduction of an environmentally destructive behavior. Psychological Reports, 70, 241-242., ,
The response specific prompt was effective in reducing the amount of grass destruction by 41-53% as compared to baseline data. However, only the combination prompt was able to fu…

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