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Water Efficiency Durham

Cases
A measure is said to be cost-effective if the costs associated with implementing the measure are less than the costs associated with not implementing it. Water saved as part of a…

Conserving Energy and Water at University of California at Santa Cruz with the Use of Norms and Prompts

Cases
Aronson, E. & O'Leary, M. (1982-83). The relative effectiveness of models and prompts on energy conservation: A field experiment in a shower room. Journal of Environmental Systems, 12, 3, 219-224.
When only the sign prompt was used to encourage water conservation, 6% of bathers turned off the water while they soaped up. In contrast, when a fellow university student modeled…

Improving Participation in a Newspaper Recycling Program in Apartment Complexes Using Prompts

Cases
Reid, D. H., Luyben, P. D., Rawers, R. J. & Bailey, J. S. (1976). Newspaper recycling behavior: the effects of prompting and proximity of containers. Environment and Behavior, 8, 471-481.
There was an increase of over 50% in the weight of recycled paper following the implementation of prompts and proximity.

Shifting to Sustainable Modes of Transportation in Boulder Colorado Using Incentives, Norms, Communication and Feedback

Cases
Evaluation has revealed an increase in pedestrian trips by 3.5%, in bicycle trips by 2.2% and in transit trips by 1.7% Between 1990 and 1994, there was a 6% modal shift from sing…

Washington State Promotes the Purchase of Recycled Content Products With Prompts in the "Get in the Loop, Buy Recycled" Program

Cases
King County commission for Marketing Recyclable Materials & Atwood, A. M. (1994). Consumer research survey: Knowledge, attitudes, and purchase of recycled-content products. King County Commission for Marketing Recyclable Materials.
During the 1994-1995 program year, "Get in the L, Buy Recycled" has a budget of US$ 275,000. Funding for the campaign came from the State of Washington, participating recycled pr…

The Effects of an Ambiguous, Negative Sign Prompts and a Clearly-Stated Positive Sign Prompt on Intentions to Litter

Cases
Horsley, A. D. (1988). The unintended effects of a posted sign on littering attitudes and stated intentions. Journal of Environmental Education, 19, 3, 10-14.
Thirty percent of participants responded that the "Please save our landscapes: don't litter" prompt would make them think about the litter problem. Furthermore, 20% indicated tha…

The Influence of Message Framing On University Student's Intent to Participate in Sustainable Behavior

Cases
Davis, J. J. (1995). The effects of message framing on response to environmental communications. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 72, 2, 285-299.
Framing communication did have an effect on participants' responses to a message and on their intent to behave sustainably. The message was more effective when the recommended be…

Using Proximity of Trash Cans and Ash Trays to Increase Convenience of Separating Litter in a Blacksburg, Virginia Shopping Mall

Cases
Geller, E. S., Brasted, W. S. & Mann, M. F. (1979). Waste receptacle designs as interventions for litter control. Journal of Environmental Systems, 9, 2, 145-160.
The greatest amount of litter separation occurred in the combination astray/garbage can receptacle. On average, 22.19 appropriate items and only 2.64 inappropriate items were dep…

Encouraging Environmentally Friendly Shopping using Prompts, Commitment and Norms

Cases
Analysis of electronic inventories indicated that the prompts did not increase the purchase of targeted items. That is, items that were identified with shelf-talkers (prompts) as…

Encouraging People at Festivals to Reduce, Recycle, and Reuse Cups

Cases
All 7,500 souvenir cups were sold and it was estimated that visitors, took over 5,000 home. Staff also counted 500 refills. The remaining cups, collected for recycling were made…

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