Increasing the Persuasiveness of Fear Appeals: The Effect of Arousal and Elaboration

Keller, P. A. & Block, L. G. (1995). Increasing the persuasiveness of fear appeals: The effect of arousal and elaboration. Journal of Consumer Research, 22, 4, 448-459.
Investigates conditions under which messages that prompt low and high levels of fear are likely to be effective. A low level of fear should be ineffective, due to insufficient ela…

Shock Tactics and the Myth of the Inverted U

Sutton, S. (1992). Shock tactics and the myth of the inverted U. British Journal of Addiction, 87, 4, 517-519.
Discusses the use of "fear appeals" or fear-arousing communications as agents of mass change in attitudes and behavior. Studies using videotapes about smoking and seat belt use ha…

Putting the Fear Back into Fear Appeals: The Extended Parallel Process Model

Witte, K. (1992). Putting the fear back into fear appeals: The extended parallel process model. Communication Monographs, 59, 4, 329-349.
Based on H. Leventhal's (1970) danger control/fear control framework, a fear appeal theory is proposed, called the extended parallel process model (EPPM). The purpose of the EPPM …

Attitude Change and Information Integration in Fear Appeals

Rogers, R. W. (1985). Attitude change and information integration in fear appeals. Psychological Reports, 56, 1, 179-182.
Investigated the combinatorial rule individuals use to integrate information about the components of a fear appeal. 89 undergraduates were presented with information about a hypot…

Ecological Awareness, Environmentalist Action, and International Conservation Strategy

Kottak, C. P. & Costa, A. C. (1993). Ecological awareness, environmentalist action, and international conservation strategy. Human Organization, 52, 4, 335-343.
Describes ongoing research on environmental risk perception and action in Brazil and Madagascar. Researchers have been investigating the relationship between the perception of env…

Should you Advertise to Hostile Audiences?

Winters, L. C. (1977). Should you advertise to hostile audiences?. Journal of Advertising Research, 17, 3, 7-15.
Describes how radio and TV advertising was used to counteract the sharp public hostility toward Standard Oil of California and Chevron that developed after the oil embargo. The co…

Self-Perception Based Strategies for Stimulating Energy Conservation

Allen, C. T. (1982). Self-perception based strategies for stimulating energy conservation. Journal of Consumer Research, 8, 4, 381-390.
Examined the utility of self-perception based influence techniques for stimulating socially conscious consumption by testing one such technique--an attribution/labeling message. S…

Motivating Recycling Behavior: A Quasiexperimental Investigation of Message and Source Strategies

Lord, K. R. (1994). Motivating recycling behavior: A quasiexperimental investigation of message and source strategies. Special Issue: Psychology, marketing, and recycling. Psychology and Marketing, 11, 4, 341-358.
Using a quasiexperimental design, direct behavioral observations and attitudinal and other survey data were drawn from 140 households to test hypotheses related to the efficacy of…

Green Movement in a Newly Industrializing Area: A Survey on the Attitudes and Behaviour of the Hong Kong Citizens

Chan, R. & Yam, E. (1995). Green movement in a newly industrializing area: A survey on the attitudes and behaviour of the Hong Kong citizens. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 5, 4, 273-284.
Tested the relationship between environmental attitudes and behavior of the citizens of Hong Kong using a revised version of M. P. Maloney & M. P. Ward's ecological scale. Variabl…

Framing and Reframing in Land Use Change Conflicts

Kaufman, S. & Smith, J. (1999). Framing and reframing in land use change conflicts. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 16, 2, 164-180.
Proposed changes to community land use frequently give rise to protracted disputes. Cognitive psychology, communication, and decision-making research suggests that frames, which f…
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