Application and Evaluation of Strategies to Reduce Pollution: Behavioral Control of Littering in a Football Stadium

Articles
Baltes, M. M. & Hayward, S. C. (1976). Application and evaluation of strategies to reduce pollution: Behavioral control of littering in a football stadium. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 4, 501-506.
Attempted to modify adult littering behavior in a naturalistic setting: the football stadium. Four different treatment strategies were used: (a) an operant contingency in the form…

Anti-Litter Procedures in an Urban High-Density Area

Articles
Chapman, C. & Risley, T. R. (1974). Anti-litter procedures in an urban high-density area. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 3, 377-383.
Notes that in urban high-density areas, litter has become an increasingly obvious and pervasive problem. In the present study, repeated measures of the amount of litter on randoml…

Cost and Effectiveness of Litter Removal Procedures in an Amusement Park

Articles
Casey, L. & Lloyd, M. (1977). Cost and effectiveness of litter removal procedures in an amusement park. Environment and Behavior, 9, 4, 535-546.
Evaluated a reinforcement procedure designed to facilitate litter removal in an amusement park. A constantly changing population of vacationing children of varying ages was offere…

A Student-Based Anti-Litter Program for Elementary Schools

Articles
Gendrich, J. G (1982). A student-based anti-litter program for elementary schools. Education and Treatment of Children, 5, 4, 321-335.
Assessed the effectiveness of an anti-litter program, consisting of daily feedback to students, diagrams of yard areas that met criterion, and weekly movies as rewards, that was i…

Resource Recovery: Use of a Group Contingency to Increase Paper Recycling in an Elementary School

Articles
Hamad, C. D., Cooper, D. & Semb, G. (1977). Resource recovery: Use of a group contingency to increase paper recycling in an elementary school. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 6, 768-772.
Recycling has been suggested as a means for replenishing dwindling energy supplies, reducing solid waste accumulation, and conserving natural resource bases. In the present study,…

Implementing Garbage User Fees in Ontario

Articles
RCO Workshop Proceedings (1996). Implementing garbage user fees in Ontario. Toronto, ON: Recycling Council of Ontario.

Consumer/Voter Behavior in the Passage of the Michigan Container Law

Articles
Crosby, L. A., Gill, J. D., & Taylor, J. R. (1981). Consumer/voter behavior in the passage of the Michigan container law. Journal of Marketing, 45, 2, 19-32.
The landslide victory of Michigan's bottle bill by popular vote contradicts previous findings regarding the small size of the ecologically concerned consumer segment. A survey of…

Litter Reduction: How Effective is the New York State Bottle Bill?

Articles
Levitt, L., & Leventhal, G. (1986). Litter reduction: How effective is the New York State Bottle Bill?. Environment and Behavior, 18, 4, 467-479.
Examined the effectiveness of the anti-litter New York Bottle Bill by using a multiple-time series design in which 7 observations of the number of returnable and nonreturnable bot…

Resource Conservation and Recycling: Behavior and Policy

Articles
Oskamp, S. (1995). Resource conservation and recycling: Behavior and policy. Journal of Social Issues, 51, 4, 157-177.
Reviews earlier research on forms of solid waste recycling and describes the findings of several recent studies of curbside programs. Past research has found that general environm…

Who Recycles and When? A Review of Personal and Situational Factors

Articles
Schultz, P. W., Oskamp, S., & Mainieri, T. (1995). Who recycles and when? A review of personal and situational factors. Journal of Enviornmental Psychology, 15, 2, 105-121.
Reviews 80 studies, published 1969-1995, to examine recyling behaviors as differentiated from attitudes and intentions. The effects on recycling behavior of both personal variabl…

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