Litter Reduction: A Review and Integration of the Literature. Special Issue: Litter Control and Recycling

Huffman, K. T., Grossnickle, W. F., Cope, J. G., & Huffman, K. P. (1995). Litter reduction: A review and integration of the literature. Special Issue: Litter control and recycling. Environment and Behavior, 27, 2, 153-183.

Examined 40 articles and 59 studies that employed either an antecedent strategy (ATS) or consequence strategy (CQS) to integrate behavioral and social changes in communities and industries to induce appropriate litter disposal. 27 articles from 46 studies used ATSs. ATSs involved prompts (written signs or verbal appeals), education, modeling, goal-setting or commitment strategies, or environmental design procedures. Removal of prior litter was also found to be a good strategy. 13 articles and studies of CQSs involved the use of rewards and penalties. Both ATSs and CQSs were generally effective in reducing litter. The strengths, limitations, and general results of the techniques are examined. Future research should include more utility analyses, studies of the long-term effects of interventions, and large-scale interventions.

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