A telephone survey of 317 Missouri residents was performed to test whether the modified version of I. M. Rosenstock's (1990) health belief model (HBM) could adequately predict recycling behavior. Residents were asked questions regarding their knowledge of recycling procedures, frequency of recycling behaviors, perceived benefits of and barriers to recycling, perceived severity of consequences of failure to recycle, and perceived likelihood of these consequences. Ss' self-efficacy, consideration of future consequences, social desirability, norms, and demographic factors were examined. Results indicate that both the traditional and modified versions of the HBM significantly predicted recycling behavior. Perceived barriers, perceived likelihood of negative outcomes due to failure to recycle, self-efficacy, and consideration of future consequences were significant predictors of recycling. Findings are consistent with applications of the HBM to health-related actions. It is concluded that the poor performance of several variables provides evidence of the psychological processes underlying decisions to recycle.