This study merges insights from two well-known attitude-behavior theories—the theory of planned behavior and the model of altruistic behavior—with elements from two broader models from environmental psychology—the model of environmental behavior and the model of environmental concern—to propose a comprehensive structural equation model to explain recycling behavior. The specified model is estimated using data from the most recent national survey performed in Portugal on the subject. In general, results support the use of the theory of planned behavior as a basis for modeling recycling participation. However, the integration of this theory with the Schwartz's model is only partially achieved. Another important finding is that recycling behavior is indirectly determined by personal psychological features, such as social conscience, but not by general ecological attitudes.