Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases among men. This study aimed to assess the effect of educational program based on Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational/Environmental Diagnosis and Evaluation (PRECEDE) model in promoting prostate cancer screening in a sample of Iranian men. This is a quasi-experimental study carried out on 300 men aged 40 to 70 (the subjects 150 experimental and 150 control groups) in Shiraz City, Fars Province, Iran, in 2016. The participants of the intervention group attended training based on the PRECEDE model. The study compared mean scores of knowledge, attitude, enabling factors, perceived social support, quality of life, general health, self-efficacy, and screening behaviors of the subjects before and 6 months after intervention in experimental and control groups. The mean age of experimental group was 56.45 ± 8.65, and the mean age of the control group was 55.64 ± 8.71 years (P = 0.521). The study showed that there was a significant increase in the mean score of knowledge, attitudes, perceived self-efficacy, enabling factors, perceived social support, quality of life, public health and screening behaviors of the experimental group; however, no significant change was observed in the mean score of knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, quality of life, general health, perceived social support, enabling factors, and screening behaviors of the control group. Our findings showed that the health education programs designed based on PRECEDE could positively affect prostate cancer screening behaviors of individuals by improving their knowledge level and attitude, enabling factors, perceived social support, quality of life, general health, and self-efficacy.