The Cognitive and Emotional Components of Behavior Norms in Outdoor Recreation

Heywood, J. (2002). The cognitive and emotional components of behavior norms in outdoor recreation. Leisure Sciences, 24(3-4), 271-281. doi:10.1080/01490400290050727.
Behavioral norms consist of 2 components: a cognitive component of obligation that is the memory repository of social standards, and an emotional component of sanctions that are t…

Altruistic, Egoistic, and Normative Effects on Curbside Recycling

Ewing, G. (2001). Altruistic, egoistic, and normative effects on curbside recycling. Environment and Behavior, 33(6), 733-764. doi:10.1177/00139160121973223.
Notes that how altruistic, normative, and egoistic factors affect households' participation in curbside recycling has been shown to depend on how participation is measured. A stud…

Persuasive Trash Cans: Activation of Littering Norms by Design

de Kort, Y., McCalley, L., & Midden, C. (2008). Persuasive trash cans: Activation of littering norms by design. Environment and Behavior, 40(6), 870-891. doi:10.1177/0013916507311035.
Two studies tested littering norm activation by trash can design. The first was a scenario study using a 4 (norm type: social injunctive vs. social descriptive vs. personal vs. co…

Pollution Reduction Preferences of U.S. Environmental Managers: Applying Ajzens Theory of Planned Behavior

Cordano, M., & Frieze, I. (2000). Pollution reduction preferences of U.S. environmental managers: Applying Ajzen's theory of planned behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 627-641. doi:10.2307/1556358.
Modified I. Ajzen's theory of planned behavior to analyze the behavioral preferences of 295 environmental managers. Ss were surveyed and structural equation analysis was used to l…

Internal and External Barriers to Eco-conscious Apparel Acquisition

Connell, K. (2010). Internal and external barriers to eco-conscious apparel acquisition. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 34(3), 279-286. doi:10.1111/j.1470-6431.2010.00865.x.
Apparel consumption is a contributing cause of environmental change, and environmental integrity requires the encouragement of eco-conscious apparel acquisition. Unfortunately, am…

Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment

Cialdini, R. (2003). Crafting normative messages to protect the environment. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(4), 105-109. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.01242.
It is widely recognized that communications that activate social norms can be effective in producing societally beneficial conduct. Not so well recognized are the circumstances un…

The Bystander Effect and Social Control Behavior: The Effect of the Presence of Others on Peoples Reactions to Norm Violations

Chekroun, P., & Brauer, M. (2002). The bystander effect and social control behavior: The effect of the presence of others on people's reactions to norm violations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32(6), 853-866. doi:10.1002/ejsp.126.
Three field studies were conducted to explore the influence of the number of bystander-observers on the likelihood of social control. We predicted that the presence of others woul…

Comparing Normative Influences as Determinants of Environmentally Conscious Behaviours Between the USA and Japan

Ando, K., Ohnuma, S., & Chang, E. (2007). Comparing normative influences as determinants of environmentally conscious behaviours between the USA and Japan. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 10(3), 171-178. doi:10.1111/j.1467-839X.2007.00223.x.
The present study explored the influences of subjective and descriptive norms on environmentally conscious behaviours between the USA and Japan. It was predicted that subjective n…

Changing Behavior with Normative Feedback Interventions: A Field Experiment on Curbside Recycling

Schultz, P. W. (1999). Changing behavior with normative feedback interventions: A field experiment on curbside recycling. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21, 1, 25-36.
Examined the effects of normative feedback on community curbside recycling, and predicted that activation of personal and social norms would lead to an increase in household recyc…

Social Meaning and Social Context of Environmentally-Relevant Behavior: Shopping, Wrapping, and Disposing

Hormuth, S. E. (1999). Social meaning and social context of environmentally-relevant behavior: Shopping, wrapping, and disposing. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19, 3, 277-286.
Presents an eco-psychological approach to environmentally-relevant behavior, taking into account the person-environment relationship, its social and physical elements, and the soc…

Welcome, Guest

Not a member yet? Sign up and add powerful tools that will help you engage in the CBSM community through additional features.

Virtual North America

Introductory & Advanced Workshops

June 1st - 10th, 2021

Learn More

Virtual Oceania

Introductory & Advanced Workshops

October 12th - 21st, 2021

Learn More
Site Courtesy of
McKenzie-Mohr & Associates

Expertise in Community-Based Social Marketing