Litter Reduction: How Effective is the New York State Bottle Bill?

Articles
Levitt, L., & Leventhal, G. (1986). Litter reduction: How effective is the New York State Bottle Bill?. Environment and Behavior, 18, 4, 467-479.
Examined the effectiveness of the anti-litter New York Bottle Bill by using a multiple-time series design in which 7 observations of the number of returnable and nonreturnable bot…

Consumer/Voter Behavior in the Passage of the Michigan Container Law

Articles
Crosby, L. A., Gill, J. D., & Taylor, J. R. (1981). Consumer/voter behavior in the passage of the Michigan container law. Journal of Marketing, 45, 2, 19-32.
The landslide victory of Michigan's bottle bill by popular vote contradicts previous findings regarding the small size of the ecologically concerned consumer segment. A survey of…

Implementing Garbage User Fees in Ontario

Articles
RCO Workshop Proceedings (1996). Implementing garbage user fees in Ontario. Toronto, ON: Recycling Council of Ontario.

Resource Recovery: Use of a Group Contingency to Increase Paper Recycling in an Elementary School

Articles
Hamad, C. D., Cooper, D. & Semb, G. (1977). Resource recovery: Use of a group contingency to increase paper recycling in an elementary school. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 6, 768-772.
Recycling has been suggested as a means for replenishing dwindling energy supplies, reducing solid waste accumulation, and conserving natural resource bases. In the present study,…

Cost and Effectiveness of Litter Removal Procedures in an Amusement Park

Articles
Casey, L. & Lloyd, M. (1977). Cost and effectiveness of litter removal procedures in an amusement park. Environment and Behavior, 9, 4, 535-546.
Evaluated a reinforcement procedure designed to facilitate litter removal in an amusement park. A constantly changing population of vacationing children of varying ages was offere…

A Student-Based Anti-Litter Program for Elementary Schools

Articles
Gendrich, J. G (1982). A student-based anti-litter program for elementary schools. Education and Treatment of Children, 5, 4, 321-335.
Assessed the effectiveness of an anti-litter program, consisting of daily feedback to students, diagrams of yard areas that met criterion, and weekly movies as rewards, that was i…

Application and Evaluation of Strategies to Reduce Pollution: Behavioral Control of Littering in a Football Stadium

Articles
Baltes, M. M. & Hayward, S. C. (1976). Application and evaluation of strategies to reduce pollution: Behavioral control of littering in a football stadium. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 4, 501-506.
Attempted to modify adult littering behavior in a naturalistic setting: the football stadium. Four different treatment strategies were used: (a) an operant contingency in the form…

A Bottle Law: An Informal Look

Articles
Trinkaus, J. (1984). A bottle law: An informal look. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 59, 3, 806.
Conducted observations before and after the passage of a 1983 statute that mandated the payment of a deposit of returnable soft-drink cans and bottles to investigate the effective…

Reinforcement and Rate of Litter Depositing

Articles
Kohlenberg, R. & Phillips, T. (1973). Reinforcement and rate of litter depositing. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 3, 391-396.
Investigated the effects of reinforcement on the frequency of litter deposits in a single experimental trash receptacle in a high-use, urban zoo. 4 2-wk periods of alternating con…

McDonald's Litter Hunt: A Community Litter Control System for Youth

Articles
McNees, M. P. (1979). McDonald's litter hunt: A community litter control system for youth. Environment and Behavior, 11, 1, 131-138.
Describes a program that integrates existing community resources into a cost-efficient system controlling community litter. Adhesive stickers were randomly placed on existing litt…

Virtual North America

Introductory & Advanced Workshops

January 10th - 19th, 2022

Learn More
Site Courtesy of
McKenzie-Mohr & Associates

Expertise in Community-Based Social Marketing