Environmental Interventions for Litter Control

Articles
Geller, E. S., Witmer, J. F. & Tuso, M. A. (1977). Environmental interventions for litter control.. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 3, 344-351.
In 2 experiments, customers entering a grocery store were given a handbill listing specially priced items, and later the disposal locations of handbills left in the store were rec…

The Evaluation of Litter Behavior Modification in a River Environment

Articles
Wagstaff, M. C. & Wilson, B. E. (1988). The evaluation of litter behavior modification in a river environment. Journal of Environmental Education, 20, 1, 39-44.
Evaluated the use of behavioral techniques in modifying the litter collection behavior of commercial rafting groups. 87 treatment Ss and 76 control Ss participated. A verbal appea…

The Effects of Litter on Littering Behavior in a Forest Environment

Articles
Crump, S. L., Nunes, D. L. & Crossman, E. K. (1977). The effects of litter on littering behavior in a forest environment. Environment and Behavior, 9, 1, 137-146.
Investigated the effects of litter already present within an area on littering behavior in a forest setting for a period of 4 successive Fridays. The 1st and 3rd Fridays were used…

The Transsituational Influence of Social Norms

Articles
Reno, R. R., Cialdini, R. B. & Kallgren, C. A. (1993). The transsituational influence of social norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 1, 104-112.
Three studies examined the behavioral implications of a conceptual distinction between 2 types of social norms: descriptive norms, which specify what is typically done in a given …

Littering as a Function of Prior Litter and the Presence or Absence of Prohibitive Signs

Articles
Reiter, S. M. & Samuel, W. (1980). Littering as a function of prior litter and the presence or absence of prohibitive signs . Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 10, 1, 45-55.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect on littering behavior of (1) two ways of antilitter signs and (2) the condition of the environment (littered vs. unlit…

Effective Public Service Announcements: Linking Social Norms to Visual Memory Cues

Articles
Bator, R. J. (1997). Effective public service announcements: Linking social norms to visual memory cues. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 58, 6-B,
The purpose of this research was to create and test the effectiveness of antilittering public service announcements (PSAs) that linked different types of visual cues to social dis…

Social Norms: An Underestimated and Underemployed Lever for Managing Climate Change

Articles
Griskevicius,V., Cialdini, R.B., and Goldstein, N.J. (2008). Social Norms: An Underestimated and Underemployed Lever for Managing Climate Change. International Journal for Sustainability Communication, 3, 5-13.
It is widely recognized that communications that make social norms salient can be effective in influencing behavior. What is surprising, given the strength of the evidence, is how…

"Norm"ally Distributed Data: The Differential Effects of Injunctive, Descriptive, and Personal Norms on Littering

Articles
Reno, R. R. "Norm"ally distributed data: The differential effects of injunctive, descriptive, and personal norms on littering. Vol. 52. 1991.

The Effect of Sign Prompts and Modeling on Encouraging Dog Owners to Pick-up Dog Droppings in Chicago, Illinois

Cases
Jason, L. A., Zolik, E. S., & Matese, F. J. (1979). Prompting dog owners to pick up dog droppings. American Journal of Community Psychology, 7, 3, 339-351.

Virtual Oceania

Introductory & Advanced Workshops

October 12th - 28th, 2021

Learn More

Virtual North America

Introductory & Advanced Workshops

January 10th - 19th, 2022

Learn More
Site Courtesy of
McKenzie-Mohr & Associates

Expertise in Community-Based Social Marketing