Values and their Relationship to Environmental Concern and Conservation Behavior

Articles
Schultz, P., Gouveia, V., Cameron, L., Tankha, G., Schmuck, P., & Franëk, M. (2005). Values and their Relationship to Environmental Concern and Conservation Behavior. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36(4), 457-475.
Recent research has examined the relationship between values and attitudes about environmental issues. Findings from these studies have found values of self-transcendence (positiv…

Laying Waste Together: The Shared Creation and Disposal of Refuse in a Social Context

Articles
Perry, M., Juhlin, O., & Normark, D. (2010). Laying waste together: The shared creation and disposal of refuse in a social context. Space and Culture, 13(1), 75-94.
This article examines how a shared object—trash—is managed through a field study of its generation and disposal within a public setting. Collaboration around trash, examining owne…

Social Norms in Outdoor Recreation: Searching for the Behavior-Condition Link

Articles
Heywood, J., & Murdock, W. (2002). Social norms in outdoor recreation: Searching for the behavior-condition link. Leisure Sciences, 24(3-4), 283-295. doi:10.1080/01490400290050745.
Social norms for encounters and setting conditions have been an important area of outdoor recreation research for the past 30 yrs. An important research assumption, based on J. Ja…

The Cognitive and Emotional Components of Behavior Norms in Outdoor Recreation

Articles
Heywood, J. (2002). The cognitive and emotional components of behavior norms in outdoor recreation. Leisure Sciences, 24(3-4), 271-281. doi:10.1080/01490400290050727.
Behavioral norms consist of 2 components: a cognitive component of obligation that is the memory repository of social standards, and an emotional component of sanctions that are t…

Persuasive Trash Cans: Activation of Littering Norms by Design

Articles
de Kort, Y., McCalley, L., & Midden, C. (2008). Persuasive trash cans: Activation of littering norms by design. Environment and Behavior, 40(6), 870-891. doi:10.1177/0013916507311035.
Two studies tested littering norm activation by trash can design. The first was a scenario study using a 4 (norm type: social injunctive vs. social descriptive vs. personal vs. co…

The Bystander Effect and Social Control Behavior: The Effect of the Presence of Others on Peoples Reactions to Norm Violations

Articles
Chekroun, P., & Brauer, M. (2002). The bystander effect and social control behavior: The effect of the presence of others on people's reactions to norm violations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32(6), 853-866. doi:10.1002/ejsp.126.
Three field studies were conducted to explore the influence of the number of bystander-observers on the likelihood of social control. We predicted that the presence of others woul…

A Focus Theory of Normative Conduct: Recycling the Concept of Norms to Reduce Littering in Public Places

Articles
Cialdini, R. B., Reno, R. R., & Kallgren, C. A. (1990). A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 6, 1015-1026.
Past research has generated mixed support among social scientists for the utility of social norms in accounting for human behavior. We argue that norms do have a substantial impac…

Litter Reduction: A Review and Integration of the Literature. Special Issue: Litter Control and Recycling

Articles
Huffman, K. T., Grossnickle, W. F., Cope, J. G., & Huffman, K. P. (1995). Litter reduction: A review and integration of the literature. Special Issue: Litter control and recycling. Environment and Behavior, 27, 2, 153-183.
Examined 40 articles and 59 studies that employed either an antecedent strategy (ATS) or consequence strategy (CQS) to integrate behavioral and social changes in communities and i…

Reactance and Norm Appeal in Anti-Littering Messages

Articles
Reich, J. W., & Robertson, J. L. (1979). Reactance and norm appeal in anti-littering messages. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 1, 91-101.
Conducted 3 experiments with a total of 390 children (over age 10 yrs) patronizing public swimming pool concessions to test a model of how anti-littering messages vary in the kind…

Shame and Embarrassment as Deterrents to Noncompliance with the Law: The Case of an Antilittering Campaign

Articles
Grasmick, H. G., Bursik, R. J. & Kinsey, K. A. (1991). Shame and embarrassment as deterrents to noncompliance with the law: The case of an antilittering campaign. Environment and Behavior, 23, 2, 233-251.
Presents data supporting the hypothesis that threats of shame, a self-imposed punishment, and threats of embarrassment, a socially imposed punishment, function much like threats o…

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