Reactance and Norm Appeal in Anti-Littering Messages

Articles
Reich, J. W., & Robertson, J. L. (1979). Reactance and norm appeal in anti-littering messages. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 1, 91-101.
Conducted 3 experiments with a total of 390 children (over age 10 yrs) patronizing public swimming pool concessions to test a model of how anti-littering messages vary in the kind…

The Unintended Effects of a Posted Sign on Littering Attitudes and Stated Intentions

Articles
Horsley, A. D. (1988). The unintended effects of a posted sign on littering attitudes and stated intentions. Journal of Environmental Education, 19, 3, 10-14.
The effects of an anti-littering sign that read "We treat litterbugs like all insects" were compared with those for a sign that read "Please save our landscape; don't litter." Ss …

The Commons Dilemma as Metaphor: Memory, Influence, and Implications for Environmental Conservation

Articles
Mio, J. S., Thompson, S. C., & Givens, G. H. (1993). The commons dilemma as metaphor: Memory, influence, and implications for environmental conservation. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 8, 1, 23-42.
Research on the commons dilemma has enjoyed much vigorous interest in the social psychological literature since Hardin's (1968) discussion of the dilemma as it relates to environm…

Littering as a Function of Prior Litter and the Presence or Absence of Prohibitive Signs

Articles
Reiter, S. M. & Samuel, W. (1980). Littering as a function of prior litter and the presence or absence of prohibitive signs . Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 10, 1, 45-55.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect on littering behavior of (1) two ways of antilitter signs and (2) the condition of the environment (littered vs. unlit…

Effective Public Service Announcements: Linking Social Norms to Visual Memory Cues

Articles
Bator, R. J. (1997). Effective public service announcements: Linking social norms to visual memory cues. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 58, 6-B,
The purpose of this research was to create and test the effectiveness of antilittering public service announcements (PSAs) that linked different types of visual cues to social dis…

Using a Normative Appeal to Control Litter at a Public Swimming Pool

Cases
Reich, J. W., & Robertson, J. L. (1979). Reactance and norm appeal in anti-littering messages. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 1, 91-101.
A literature review revealed that a statement that puts an extreme demand on a person is likely to elicit the undesirable behavior. On the other hand, a statement that creates a n…

The Effects of an Ambiguous, Negative Sign Prompt and a Clearly-Stated Positive Sign Prompt on Intentions to Litter

Cases
Horsley, A. D. (1988). The unintended effects of a posted sign on littering attitudes and stated intentions. Journal of Environmental Education, 19, 3, 10-14.
A literature review revealed that sign prompts can be effective in reducing the amount of litter. In order to further investigate the effects of prompts, a questionnaire was given…
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