Choosing to Encourage or Discourage: Perceived Effectiveness of Prescriptive versus Proscriptive Messages

Winter, P.L., Sagarin, B.J., Rhoads, K., Barrett, D.W., Cialdini, R.B. (2000). Choosing to encourage or discourage: Perceived effectiveness of prescriptive and proscriptive messages. Environmental Management, 2(6): 588-594.
The estimated cost of repairing damage caused to recreational sites annually is in the hundreds of millions of dollars. These depreciative activities also reduce the quality of vi…

Litter Reduction: A Review and Integration of the Literature. Special Issue: Litter Control and Recycling

Huffman, K. T., Grossnickle, W. F., Cope, J. G., & Huffman, K. P. (1995). Litter reduction: A review and integration of the literature. Special Issue: Litter control and recycling. Environment and Behavior, 27, 2, 153-183.
Examined 40 articles and 59 studies that employed either an antecedent strategy (ATS) or consequence strategy (CQS) to integrate behavioral and social changes in communities and i…

The Evaluation of Litter Behavior Modification in a River Environment

Wagstaff, M. C. & Wilson, B. E. (1988). The evaluation of litter behavior modification in a river environment. Journal of Environmental Education, 20, 1, 39-44.
Evaluated the use of behavioral techniques in modifying the litter collection behavior of commercial rafting groups. 87 treatment Ss and 76 control Ss participated. A verbal appea…

Increasing Desired Waste Disposals with Instructions

Geller, E. S. (1975). Increasing desired waste disposals with instructions. Man Environment Systems, 5, 2, 125-128.
In 2 experiments, handbills were distributed to individuals entering a movie theater and grocery store, respectively. 20% more handbills were deposited in the trash cans and ash t…
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