Field and Laboratory Studies of Littering

Krauss, R. M. & Freedman, J. L. & Whitcup, M. (1978). Field and laboratory studies of littering. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 14, 1, 109-122.
Reports 2 field and 2 laboratory experiments on littering behavior. In Exp I, observations of 1,765 Ss at 9 locations in the New York City area showed that littering rates varied …

The Evaluation of Litter Behavior Modification in a River Environment

Wagstaff, M. C. & Wilson, B. E. (1988). The evaluation of litter behavior modification in a river environment. Journal of Environmental Education, 20, 1, 39-44.
Evaluated the use of behavioral techniques in modifying the litter collection behavior of commercial rafting groups. 87 treatment Ss and 76 control Ss participated. A verbal appea…

Behavioral Strategies to Reduce Cigarette Litter

Cope, J. G., Huffman, K. T., Allred, L. J. & Grossnickle, W. F. (1993). Behavioral strategies to reduce cigarette litter. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8, 4, 607-619.
Determined in 2 experiments whether an increased number of ashtrays available in a particular location would reduce ground accumulations of cigarette litter and whether decorated …

Prompts and Posted Feedback: In Search of an Effective Method of Litter Control

Dixon, R. S., Knott, T., Rowsell, H. & Sheldon, L. (1992). Prompts and posted feedback: In search of an effective method of litter control. Behaviour Change, 9, 1, 2-7.
Compared the effectiveness of prompts (PRs [signs]) and posted feedback (PFB) as litter control strategies in 2 university cafeterias. Patronage and litter rates were monitored da…

Prompting a Consumer Behavior for Pollution Control

Geller, E. S., Farris, J. C. & Post, D. S. (1973). Prompting a consumer behavior for pollution control. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 3, 367-376.
Studied the relative effectiveness of different prompting procedures for increasing the probability that customers entering a grocery store would select their soft drinks in retur…

Application and Evaluation of Strategies to Reduce Pollution: Behavioral Control of Littering in a Football Stadium

Baltes, M. M. & Hayward, S. C. (1976). Application and evaluation of strategies to reduce pollution: Behavioral control of littering in a football stadium. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 4, 501-506.
Attempted to modify adult littering behavior in a naturalistic setting: the football stadium. Four different treatment strategies were used: (a) an operant contingency in the form…

Reinforcement and Rate of Litter Depositing

Kohlenberg, R. & Phillips, T. (1973). Reinforcement and rate of litter depositing. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 3, 391-396.
Investigated the effects of reinforcement on the frequency of litter deposits in a single experimental trash receptacle in a high-use, urban zoo. 4 2-wk periods of alternating con…

Litter in a University Cafeteria: Demographic Data and the Use of Prompts as an Intervention Strategy

Durdan, C. A., Reeder, G. D. & Hecht, P. R. (1985). Litter in a university cafeteria: Demographic data and the use of prompts as an intervention strategy. Environment and Behavior, 17, 3, 387-404.
Investigated the effectiveness of posted feedback as a litter control strategy in a university cafeteria in the absence of written prompts. Patronage and litter rates were monitor…

Increasing Desired Waste Disposals with Instructions

Geller, E. S. (1975). Increasing desired waste disposals with instructions. Man Environment Systems, 5, 2, 125-128.
In 2 experiments, handbills were distributed to individuals entering a movie theater and grocery store, respectively. 20% more handbills were deposited in the trash cans and ash t…

Prompting Anti-Litter Behaviors

Geller, E. S. (1973). Prompting anti-litter behaviors. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 907-908.
Gave a handbill to Ss entering a grocery store and 2 movie theaters. The handbills either did or did not contain a general or specific antilitter statement. Paper cups of lemonade…

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