Effects of Fear and Specificity of Recommendation upon Attitudes and behavior

Leventhal, H., Singer, R. & Jones, S. (1965). Effects of fear and specificity of recommendation upon attitudes and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 1, 20-29.
The study dealt with the effects of (a) level of fear and (b) specific plans for action vs. general recommendations on attitudes toward tetanus inoculations and actually getting t…

A Revised Scale for the Measurement of Ecological Attitudes and Knowledge

Maloney, M. P., Ward, M. P., & Braucht, G. N. (1975). A revised scale for the measurement of ecological attitudes and knowledge. American Psychologist, 30, 7, 787-790.
Investigated the effects of fear appeals on persuasion in a factorial experiment that was designed to test a combined model of protection motivation theory and self-efficacy the…

Effects of Fear Appeals and Physiological Arousal upon Emotions, Attitudes, and Cigarette Smoking.

Rogers, R. W., & Deckner, C. W. (1975). Effects of fear appeals and physiological arousal upon emotions, attitudes, and cigarette smoking.. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 2, 222-230.
Conducted 2 experiments to conceptually replicate S. Schachter's (1964) theory of the determinants of emotion and to test the feasibility of extending the theory to attitudes an…

Reactance and Norm Appeal in Anti-Littering Messages

Reich, J. W., & Robertson, J. L. (1979). Reactance and norm appeal in anti-littering messages. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 1, 91-101.
Conducted 3 experiments with a total of 390 children (over age 10 yrs) patronizing public swimming pool concessions to test a model of how anti-littering messages vary in the kind…

A Protection Motivation Theory of Fear Appeals and Attitude Change

Maddux, J., & Rogers, R. W. (1983). Protection motivation and self-efficacy: A revised theory of fear appeals and attitude change.. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 5, 469-479.
Proposes a protection motivation theory that postulates the 3 crucial components of a fear appeal to be (a) the magnitude of noxiousness of a depicted event, (b) the probability…

Fear-Arousing and Empathy-Arousing Appeals to Help: The Pathos of Persuasion

Shelton, M. L., & Rogers, R. W. (1981). Fear-arousing and empathy-arousing appeals to help: The pathos of persuasion.. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 11, 4, 366-378.
Tested the proposition that the components of a fear appeal, which persuade people to protect themselves, are the same components that persuade them to protect others. Films showi…

Availability: A Heuristic for Judging Frequency and Probability

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1973). Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability.. Cognitive Psychology, 5, 2, 207-232.
Conducted a series of experiments with 877 Ss to explore a judgmental heuristic in which S evaluates the frequency of classes or the probability of events by availability (i.e.,…

A Historical View of Scare Tactics

Boyer, P. (1986). A historical view of scare tactics. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist, January, 17-19.

Fear Appeals, Individual Differences, and Environmental Concern

Hine, D. W., & Gifford, R. (1991). Fear appeals, individual differences, and environmental concern. Journal of Environmental Education, 23, 1, 36-41.
Examined the effect of a brief but intense antipollution message (APM) on verbal commitment (stated willingness to act) and on 3 forms of immediate behavioral commitment (donating…

The Baby is Sick/the Baby is Well: A Test of Environmental Communication Appeals. Special Issue: Green Advertising

Obermiller, C. (1995). The baby is sick/the baby is well: A test of environmental communication appeals. Special Issue: Green advertising. Journal of Advertising, 24, 2, 55-70.
Investigated "sick baby" and "well baby"communication strategies in environmental or social marketing. Two studies were conducted with 300 adults. In the 1st study, 95 Ss were use…

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