Using Social Norms to Reduce Household Energy Consumption

Cases
Schultz P. W., Nolan J. M., Cialdini R. B., Goldstein N. J., Griskevicius Vladas (2007). The Constructive, Destructive, and Reconstructive Power of Social Norms. Psychological Science, 18(5), 429-434.
Background  In the two projects described below, information was delivered to households in order to foster norms that support reduced electricity consumption.  These projects ma…

Personal and Contextual Influences on Household Energy Adaptations

Articles
Black, J. S., Stern, P. C. & Elworth, J. T. (1985). Personal and contextual influences on household energy adaptations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 1, 3-21.
Examined the interactive effects of economic, demographic, structural, and psychological variables on 4 behaviorally distinct types of reported conservation response involving ene…

From Social Psychology to Political Economy: A Model of Energy Use Behavior

Articles
Dholakia, R. R., Dholakia, N., & Firat, A. F. (1983). From social psychology to political economy: A model of energy use behavior. Journal of Economic Psychology, 3, 3-4, 231-247.
Argues that policies designed to affect individual energy-use behavior focus mostly on a limited number of micro (social and psychological), short-run, and easily manipulable vari…

Energy Conservation: A Social Dilemma Approach. Special Issue: Applied Perspectives on Social and Temporal Dilemmas

Articles
Samuelson, C. D. (1990). Energy conservation: A social dilemma approach. Special Issue: Applied perspectives on social and temporal dilemmas. Social Behaviour, 5, 4, 207-230.
Analyzes the problem of residential energy use and energy conservation, using a social dilemma approach. Laboratory experiments on social dilemmas and field studies of energy cons…

Responses to Changing Energy Conditions among Massachusetts Households

Articles
Stern, P. C., Black, J. S. & Elworth, J. T. (1983). Responses to changing energy conditions among Massachusetts households. Energy, 8, 7, 515-523.
Survey data on 478 residential electricity consumers in Massachusetts are used to examine the effects of economic, demographic, structural, and attitudinal variables on energy-sav…

Energy Conservation: Two Easy Ways Out

Articles
Van-der-Pligt, J. (1985). Energy conservation: Two easy ways out. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 15, 1, 3-15.
Investigated attitude-behavior relationships in the context of energy conservation, using data from questionnaires administered to 219 Dutch Ss (average age 43.9 yrs) from rural a…

The Effects of Videotape Modeling and Daily Feedback on Residential Electricity Conservation, Home Temperature and Humidity, Perceived Comfort, and Clothing Worn: Winter and Summer

Articles
Winett, R. A., Hatcher, J. W., Fort, T. R., Leckliter, I. N., Love, S. Q., Riley, A. W., & Fishback, J. F. (1982). The effects of videotape modeling and daily feedback on residential electricity conservation, home temperature and humidity, perceived comfort, and clothing worn: Winter and summer. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 3, 381-402.
Two studies were conducted in all-electric residences in the winter ( n = 83) and summer ( n = 54) to ascertain how energy conservation strategies focusing on the thermostat cha…

Effects of Television Modeling on Residential Energy Conservation

Articles
Winett, R. A., Leckliter, I. N., Chinn, D. E., Stahl, B., & Love, S. Q. (1985). Effects of television modeling on residential energy conservation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 1, 33-44.
A combination of social marketing, communication, social learning (particularly modeling), and behavior analysis may provide an effective framework for behavior change via films a…

The Meaning of Normative Processes for Energy Conservation

Articles
Midden, C. J. & Ritsema, B. S. (1983). The meaning of normative processes for energy conservation. Journal of Economic Psychology, 4, 1-2, 37-55.
A national survey of 1,076 people was conducted in the Netherlands on attitudes, beliefs, norms, intentions, and behavior with respect to energy conservation. The questionnaire wa…

Social Norms: An Underestimated and Underemployed Lever for Managing Climate Change

Articles
Griskevicius,V., Cialdini, R.B., and Goldstein, N.J. (2008). Social Norms: An Underestimated and Underemployed Lever for Managing Climate Change. International Journal for Sustainability Communication, 3, 5-13.
It is widely recognized that communications that make social norms salient can be effective in influencing behavior. What is surprising, given the strength of the evidence, is how…

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