Putting Text in Context: The Conflict Between Pro-Ecological Messages and Anti-Ecological Descriptive Norms

Articles
Oceja, L., & Berenguer, J. (2009). Putting text in context: The conflict between pro-ecological messages and anti-ecological descriptive norms. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 12(2), 657-666.
In the present work we test whether the effectiveness of ecological messages may be canceled out when they conflict with the descriptive norm that is salient in the situation. In …

A Room with a Viewpoint: Using Social Norms to Motivate Environmental Conservation in Hotels

Articles
Goldstein, N., Cialdini, R., & Griskevicius, V. (2008). A room with a viewpoint: Using social norms to motivate environmental conservation in hotels. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(3), 472-482. doi:10.1086/586910.
Two field experiments examined the effectiveness of signs requesting hotel guests' participation in an environmental conservation program. Appeals employing descriptive norms (e.g…

Using E-mail Listservs to Promote Environmentally Sustainable Behaviors

Articles
Artz, N., & Cooke, P. (2007). Using e-mail listservs to promote environmentally sustainable behaviors. Journal of Marketing Communications, 13(4), 257-276.
This paper describes a social marketing campaign that encouraged individuals to adopt environmentally sustainable behaviors such as purchasing green power, installing energy-effic…

Using Community-Based Social Marketing Techniques to Enhance Environmental Regulation

Articles
Kennedy, A. (2010). Using Community-Based Social Marketing Techniques to Enhance Environmental Regulation. Sustainability, 2(4), 1138-1160
This article explores how environmental regulation may be improved through the use of community-based social marketing techniques. While regulation is an important tool of sustain…

Successfully Changing Individual Travel Behavior: Applying Community-Based Social Marketing to Travel Choice

Articles
Cooper, C. (2007). Successfully changing individual travel behavior: Applying community-based social marketing to travel choice. Transportation Research Record, (2021), pp. 88-99.
This paper demonstrates that community-based social marketing techniques can be successfully used to affect people's transportation awareness and behavior, as deployed in Washingt…

The Relative Effectiveness of Models and Prompts on Energy Conservation: A Field Experiment in a Shower Room

Articles
Aronson, E. & O'Leary, M. (1982-83). The relative effectiveness of models and prompts on energy conservation: A field experiment in a shower room. Journal of Environmental Systems, 12, 3, 219-224.
Signs were placed in the field house shower rooms of a university campus exhorting people to conserve water and energy by turning off the water while soaping up. Making the signs…

Changing Behavior and Making it Stick: The Conceptualization and Management of Conservation Behavior

Articles
De Young, R. (1993). Changing behavior and making it stick: The conceptualization and management of conservation behavior. Environment and Behavior, 25, 4, 485-505.
Discusses categorization of conservation behavior change techniques (BCTs), the role techniques offer the individual whose behavior is being changed, and a means of evaluating the…

Toward More Effective Antecedent Strategies for Environmental Programs

Articles
Ester, P. & Winett, R. A. (1982). Toward more effective antecedent strategies for environmental programs. Journal of Environmental Systems, 11, 3, 201-221.
Antecedent strategies such as information and prompts when used to promote proenvironmental practices, i.e., energy and water conservation, recycling and litter control, use of ma…

Applied Behavior Analysis and Social Marketing: An Integration for Environmental Preservation

Articles
Geller, E. S. (1989). Applied behavior analysis and social marketing: An integration for environmental preservation. Journal of Social Issues, 45, 1, 17-36.
Basic principles of applied behavior analysis and social marketing are reviewed with reference to the development of action plans to protect the environment. Behavior-change pro…

Litter Reduction: A Review and Integration of the Literature. Special Issue: Litter Control and Recycling

Articles
Huffman, K. T., Grossnickle, W. F., Cope, J. G., & Huffman, K. P. (1995). Litter reduction: A review and integration of the literature. Special Issue: Litter control and recycling. Environment and Behavior, 27, 2, 153-183.
Examined 40 articles and 59 studies that employed either an antecedent strategy (ATS) or consequence strategy (CQS) to integrate behavioral and social changes in communities and i…
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