Littering as a Function of Prior Litter and the Presence or Absence of Prohibitive Signs

Reiter, S. M. & Samuel, W. (1980). Littering as a function of prior litter and the presence or absence of prohibitive signs . Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 10, 1, 45-55.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect on littering behavior of (1) two ways of antilitter signs and (2) the condition of the environment (littered vs. unlit…

Measuring the Effects of Message Framing on the Behavior of Recycling in a Residential Recycling Program

Littlejohn, C. R. (1997). Measuring the effects of message framing on the behavior of recycling in a residential recycling program. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 58, 3-A,
This research, which replicated 'The Effects of Message Framing on Response to Environmental Communications' by Joel J. Davis, explored how the framing of environmental communicat…

Effective Public Service Announcements: Linking Social Norms to Visual Memory Cues

Bator, R. J. (1997). Effective public service announcements: Linking social norms to visual memory cues. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 58, 6-B,
The purpose of this research was to create and test the effectiveness of antilittering public service announcements (PSAs) that linked different types of visual cues to social dis…

Clinical Validation and Cognitive Elaboration: Signs That Encourage Sustained Recycling

Werner, Carol M.; Stoll, Robert; Birch, Paul; White, Paul H. (2002). Clinical Validation and Cognitive Elaboration: Signs That Encourage Sustained Recycling. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 24, 3, 185 – 203.
Three field experiments coupled the clinical psychology concept of validation with Elaboration Likelihood Model-Heuristic-Systematic Model theorizing to increase the influence of …

Email 'Eco-Taglines'

Ben Frost Manchester October 18, 2008 01:25 PM
Hi, everyone: I've been wondering about the proliferation of email taglines that ask people to "consider the environment before printing this email." Considering the methods pr…

Marketing in a 9/11, War, Tsunami, and Katrina Society

Cedar Bouta Olympia June 08, 2006 08:21 PM
Am looking for recent research that speaks to doing education and outreach in a society framed by fear - both of manmade disasters such as 9/11 and the Iraq War, and natural disas…

Using a Normative Appeal to Control Litter at a Public Swimming Pool

Reich, J. W., & Robertson, J. L. (1979). Reactance and norm appeal in anti-littering messages. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 1, 91-101.
A literature review revealed that a statement that puts an extreme demand on a person is likely to elicit the undesirable behavior. On the other hand, a statement that creates a n…

The Effects of an Ambiguous, Negative Sign Prompt and a Clearly-Stated Positive Sign Prompt on Intentions to Litter

Horsley, A. D. (1988). The unintended effects of a posted sign on littering attitudes and stated intentions. Journal of Environmental Education, 19, 3, 10-14.
A literature review revealed that sign prompts can be effective in reducing the amount of litter. In order to further investigate the effects of prompts, a questionnaire was given…

Virtual North America

Introductory & Advanced Workshops

January 10th - 19th, 2022

Learn More
Site Courtesy of
McKenzie-Mohr & Associates

Expertise in Community-Based Social Marketing