Reactance and Norm Appeal in Anti-Littering Messages

Articles
Reich, J. W., & Robertson, J. L. (1979). Reactance and norm appeal in anti-littering messages. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 1, 91-101.
Conducted 3 experiments with a total of 390 children (over age 10 yrs) patronizing public swimming pool concessions to test a model of how anti-littering messages vary in the kind…

Effects of Verbal Prompting and Block Characteristics on Participation in Curbside Newspaper Recycling

Articles
Spaccarelli, S., Zolik, E. & Jason, L. A. (1989-1990). Effects of verbal prompting and block characteristics on participation in curbside newspaper recycling. Journal of Environmental Systems, 19, 1, 45-57.
The effects of two prompting procedures to promote curbside recycling of newspapers were evaluated. Results indicated no effect on weekly percent participation after handbills al…

Increasing Recycling in Office Environments: The Effects of Specific, Informative Cues

Articles
Austin, J., Hatfield, D. B., Grindle, A. C., & Bailey, J. S. (1993). Increasing recycling in office environments: The effects of specific, informative cues. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 2, 247-253.
Investigated the effects of prompts on the recycling behavior of approximately 217 faculty, staff, and graduate students in 2 academic departments of a large university. During th…

Who Recycles and When? A Review of Personal and Situational Factors

Articles
Schultz, P. W., Oskamp, S., & Mainieri, T. (1995). Who recycles and when? A review of personal and situational factors. Journal of Enviornmental Psychology, 15, 2, 105-121.
Reviews 80 studies, published 1969-1995, to examine recyling behaviors as differentiated from attitudes and intentions. The effects on recycling behavior of both personal variabl…

The Use of Stimulus Control over Littering in a Natural Setting

Articles
O’Neill, G. W., Blanck, L. S., & Joyner, M. A. (1980). The use of stimulus control over littering in a natural setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 2, 379-381.
A conventional litter receptacle (55-gallon drum) and a specially designed receptacle consisting of a 55-gallon drum adorned with a plywood "hat" were alternated in 2 areas of a f…

The Unintended Effects of a Posted Sign on Littering Attitudes and Stated Intentions

Articles
Horsley, A. D. (1988). The unintended effects of a posted sign on littering attitudes and stated intentions. Journal of Environmental Education, 19, 3, 10-14.
The effects of an anti-littering sign that read "We treat litterbugs like all insects" were compared with those for a sign that read "Please save our landscape; don't litter." Ss …

Toward a Sustainable Society: Waste Minimization through Environmentally Conscious Consuming

Articles
Linn, N., Vining, J., & Feeley, P. A. (1994). Toward a sustainable society: Waste minimization through environmentally conscious consuming. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 17, 1550-1572.
The experiment was an educational intervention that promoted and described an ongoing environmental tagging program located in a chain of 3 local grocery stores. Over the period o…

Using Verbal and Visual Prompts to Control Littering in High Schools

Articles
Houghton, S. (1993). Using verbal and visual prompts to control littering in high schools. Educational Studies, 19, 3, 247-254.
Investigated the use of verbal and visual prompts to control litter behavior of students in 2 Western Australian high schools. 1,750 students participated in the study. Data were …

Designing Effective Instructional Signs with Schema Theory: Case Studies of Polystyrene Recycling

Articles
Werner, C. M., Rhodes, M.U. & Partain, K. K. (1998). Designing effective instructional signs with schema theory: Case studies of polystyrene recycling. Environment and Behavior, 30, 5, 709-735.
Two studies supported the hypothesis that signs designed to create a new polystyrene schema would be more effective than signs that did not address patrons' existing schemata. Sch…

Field and Laboratory Studies of Littering

Articles
Krauss, R. M. & Freedman, J. L. & Whitcup, M. (1978). Field and laboratory studies of littering. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 14, 1, 109-122.
Reports 2 field and 2 laboratory experiments on littering behavior. In Exp I, observations of 1,765 Ss at 9 locations in the New York City area showed that littering rates varied …

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