Using Verbal and Visual Prompts to Control Littering in High Schools

Houghton, S. (1993). Using verbal and visual prompts to control littering in high schools. Educational Studies, 19, 3, 247-254.
Investigated the use of verbal and visual prompts to control litter behavior of students in 2 Western Australian high schools. 1,750 students participated in the study. Data were …

The Commons Dilemma as Metaphor: Memory, Influence, and Implications for Environmental Conservation

Mio, J. S., Thompson, S. C., & Givens, G. H. (1993). The commons dilemma as metaphor: Memory, influence, and implications for environmental conservation. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 8, 1, 23-42.
Research on the commons dilemma has enjoyed much vigorous interest in the social psychological literature since Hardin's (1968) discussion of the dilemma as it relates to environm…

Shame and Embarrassment as Deterrents to Noncompliance with the Law: The Case of an Antilittering Campaign

Grasmick, H. G., Bursik, R. J. & Kinsey, K. A. (1991). Shame and embarrassment as deterrents to noncompliance with the law: The case of an antilittering campaign. Environment and Behavior, 23, 2, 233-251.
Presents data supporting the hypothesis that threats of shame, a self-imposed punishment, and threats of embarrassment, a socially imposed punishment, function much like threats o…

A Comparison of Table-Littering Behavior in Two Settings: A Case for a Contextual Research Strategy

Meeker, F. L. (1997). A comparison of table-littering behavior in two settings: A case for a contextual research strategy. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 17, 1, 59-68.
Compared table littering behavior of nearly 2,000 persons and 1,100 table occupancies in 2 settings (a fast-food restaurant and a university library concession lounge). The settin…

Environmental Interventions for Litter Control

Geller, E. S., Witmer, J. F. & Tuso, M. A. (1977). Environmental interventions for litter control.. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 3, 344-351.
In 2 experiments, customers entering a grocery store were given a handbill listing specially priced items, and later the disposal locations of handbills left in the store were rec…

Field and Laboratory Studies of Littering

Krauss, R. M. & Freedman, J. L. & Whitcup, M. (1978). Field and laboratory studies of littering. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 14, 1, 109-122.
Reports 2 field and 2 laboratory experiments on littering behavior. In Exp I, observations of 1,765 Ss at 9 locations in the New York City area showed that littering rates varied …

A Student-Based Anti-Litter Program for Elementary Schools

Gendrich, J. G (1982). A student-based anti-litter program for elementary schools. Education and Treatment of Children, 5, 4, 321-335.
Assessed the effectiveness of an anti-litter program, consisting of daily feedback to students, diagrams of yard areas that met criterion, and weekly movies as rewards, that was i…

Cost and Effectiveness of Litter Removal Procedures in an Amusement Park

Casey, L. & Lloyd, M. (1977). Cost and effectiveness of litter removal procedures in an amusement park. Environment and Behavior, 9, 4, 535-546.
Evaluated a reinforcement procedure designed to facilitate litter removal in an amusement park. A constantly changing population of vacationing children of varying ages was offere…

Behavioral Strategies to Reduce Cigarette Litter

Cope, J. G., Huffman, K. T., Allred, L. J. & Grossnickle, W. F. (1993). Behavioral strategies to reduce cigarette litter. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8, 4, 607-619.
Determined in 2 experiments whether an increased number of ashtrays available in a particular location would reduce ground accumulations of cigarette litter and whether decorated …

Anti-Litter Procedures in an Urban High-Density Area

Chapman, C. & Risley, T. R. (1974). Anti-litter procedures in an urban high-density area. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 3, 377-383.
Notes that in urban high-density areas, litter has become an increasingly obvious and pervasive problem. In the present study, repeated measures of the amount of litter on randoml…

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