Application and Evaluation of Strategies to Reduce Pollution: Behavioral Control of Littering in a Football Stadium

Articles
Baltes, M. M. & Hayward, S. C. (1976). Application and evaluation of strategies to reduce pollution: Behavioral control of littering in a football stadium. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 4, 501-506.
Attempted to modify adult littering behavior in a naturalistic setting: the football stadium. Four different treatment strategies were used: (a) an operant contingency in the form…

McDonald's Litter Hunt: A Community Litter Control System for Youth

Articles
McNees, M. P. (1979). McDonald's litter hunt: A community litter control system for youth. Environment and Behavior, 11, 1, 131-138.
Describes a program that integrates existing community resources into a cost-efficient system controlling community litter. Adhesive stickers were randomly placed on existing litt…

The Evaluation of Litter Behavior Modification in a River Environment

Articles
Wagstaff, M. C. & Wilson, B. E. (1988). The evaluation of litter behavior modification in a river environment. Journal of Environmental Education, 20, 1, 39-44.
Evaluated the use of behavioral techniques in modifying the litter collection behavior of commercial rafting groups. 87 treatment Ss and 76 control Ss participated. A verbal appea…

Prompts and Posted Feedback: In Search of an Effective Method of Litter Control

Articles
Dixon, R. S., Knott, T., Rowsell, H. & Sheldon, L. (1992). Prompts and posted feedback: In search of an effective method of litter control. Behaviour Change, 9, 1, 2-7.
Compared the effectiveness of prompts (PRs [signs]) and posted feedback (PFB) as litter control strategies in 2 university cafeterias. Patronage and litter rates were monitored da…

Reinforcement and Rate of Litter Depositing

Articles
Kohlenberg, R. & Phillips, T. (1973). Reinforcement and rate of litter depositing. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 3, 391-396.
Investigated the effects of reinforcement on the frequency of litter deposits in a single experimental trash receptacle in a high-use, urban zoo. 4 2-wk periods of alternating con…

Prompting Anti-Litter Behaviors

Articles
Geller, E. S. (1973). Prompting anti-litter behaviors. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 907-908.
Gave a handbill to Ss entering a grocery store and 2 movie theaters. The handbills either did or did not contain a general or specific antilitter statement. Paper cups of lemonade…

Littering: A New Unobtrusive Measure of Attitude

Articles
Cialdini, R. B. & Baumann, D. J. (1981). Littering: A new unobtrusive measure of attitude. Social Psychology Quarterly, 44, 3, 254-259.
In Exp I, 227 voters' choices of presidential candidate were assessed, and their decisions to litter a parking lot with a campaign flier placed on their car windshield were observ…

The Transsituational Influence of Social Norms

Articles
Reno, R. R., Cialdini, R. B. & Kallgren, C. A. (1993). The transsituational influence of social norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 1, 104-112.
Three studies examined the behavioral implications of a conceptual distinction between 2 types of social norms: descriptive norms, which specify what is typically done in a given …

Increasing Desired Waste Disposals with Instructions

Articles
Geller, E. S. (1975). Increasing desired waste disposals with instructions. Man Environment Systems, 5, 2, 125-128.
In 2 experiments, handbills were distributed to individuals entering a movie theater and grocery store, respectively. 20% more handbills were deposited in the trash cans and ash t…

Littering Behavior in Public Places

Articles
Robinson, S. N. (1976). Littering behavior in public places. Environment and Behavior, 8, 3, 363-384.
Reviews and summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning littering behavior by categorizing available studies according to 4 major variables that influence littering--demo…

Welcome, Guest

Not a member yet? Sign up and add powerful tools that will help you engage in the CBSM community through additional features.

Virtual North America

Introductory & Advanced Workshops

June 1st - 10th, 2021

Learn More

Virtual Oceania

Introductory & Advanced Workshops

October 12th - 21st, 2021

Learn More
Site Courtesy of
McKenzie-Mohr & Associates

Expertise in Community-Based Social Marketing