Anti-Litter Procedures in an Urban High-Density Area

Chapman, C. & Risley, T. R. (1974). Anti-litter procedures in an urban high-density area. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 3, 377-383.
Notes that in urban high-density areas, litter has become an increasingly obvious and pervasive problem. In the present study, repeated measures of the amount of litter on randoml…

Application and Evaluation of Strategies to Reduce Pollution: Behavioral Control of Littering in a Football Stadium

Baltes, M. M. & Hayward, S. C. (1976). Application and evaluation of strategies to reduce pollution: Behavioral control of littering in a football stadium. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 4, 501-506.
Attempted to modify adult littering behavior in a naturalistic setting: the football stadium. Four different treatment strategies were used: (a) an operant contingency in the form…

Behavioral Strategies to Reduce Cigarette Litter

Cope, J. G., Huffman, K. T., Allred, L. J. & Grossnickle, W. F. (1993). Behavioral strategies to reduce cigarette litter. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8, 4, 607-619.
Determined in 2 experiments whether an increased number of ashtrays available in a particular location would reduce ground accumulations of cigarette litter and whether decorated …

McDonald's Litter Hunt: A Community Litter Control System for Youth

McNees, M. P. (1979). McDonald's litter hunt: A community litter control system for youth. Environment and Behavior, 11, 1, 131-138.
Describes a program that integrates existing community resources into a cost-efficient system controlling community litter. Adhesive stickers were randomly placed on existing litt…

Reinforcement and Rate of Litter Depositing

Kohlenberg, R. & Phillips, T. (1973). Reinforcement and rate of litter depositing. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 3, 391-396.
Investigated the effects of reinforcement on the frequency of litter deposits in a single experimental trash receptacle in a high-use, urban zoo. 4 2-wk periods of alternating con…

The Evaluation of Litter Behavior Modification in a River Environment

Wagstaff, M. C. & Wilson, B. E. (1988). The evaluation of litter behavior modification in a river environment. Journal of Environmental Education, 20, 1, 39-44.
Evaluated the use of behavioral techniques in modifying the litter collection behavior of commercial rafting groups. 87 treatment Ss and 76 control Ss participated. A verbal appea…

The Transsituational Influence of Social Norms

Reno, R. R., Cialdini, R. B. & Kallgren, C. A. (1993). The transsituational influence of social norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 1, 104-112.
Three studies examined the behavioral implications of a conceptual distinction between 2 types of social norms: descriptive norms, which specify what is typically done in a given …

Prompting Anti-Litter Behaviors

Geller, E. S. (1973). Prompting anti-litter behaviors. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 907-908.
Gave a handbill to Ss entering a grocery store and 2 movie theaters. The handbills either did or did not contain a general or specific antilitter statement. Paper cups of lemonade…

The A, B, C of Litter Control

Keenan, M. (1996). The A, B, C of litter control. Irish Journal of Psychology, 17, 4, 327-339.
Examines general issues regarding the nature of behavioral psychology, and concepts of applied behavioral analysis. It is argued that behavior analysis can play a pivotal role in …

Litter in a University Cafeteria: Demographic Data and the Use of Prompts as an Intervention Strategy

Durdan, C. A., Reeder, G. D. & Hecht, P. R. (1985). Litter in a university cafeteria: Demographic data and the use of prompts as an intervention strategy. Environment and Behavior, 17, 3, 387-404.
Investigated the effectiveness of posted feedback as a litter control strategy in a university cafeteria in the absence of written prompts. Patronage and litter rates were monitor…

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