A Focus Theory of Normative Conduct: Recycling the Concept of Norms to Reduce Littering in Public Places

Articles
Cialdini, R. B., Reno, R. R., & Kallgren, C. A. (1990). A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 6, 1015-1026.
Past research has generated mixed support among social scientists for the utility of social norms in accounting for human behavior. We argue that norms do have a substantial impac…

Field Experiments in Litter Control

Articles
Finnie, W. C. (1973). Field experiments in litter control. Environment and Behavior, 5, 2, 123-144.
Conducted field experiments in 3 cities to measure the effects of litter cans on the rate of littering. The measure of litter, a litter count, was based on size and type of litt…

Waste Receptacle Designs as Interventions for Litter Control

Articles
Geller, E. S., Brasted, W. S. & Mann, M. F. (1979). Waste receptacle designs as interventions for litter control. Journal of Environmental Systems, 9, 2, 145-160.
Two experiments in an indoor shopping mall examined relationships between trash-receptacle design and litter-disposal behaviors. For the first study, the trash deposited in six t…

Litter Reduction: A Review and Integration of the Literature. Special Issue: Litter Control and Recycling

Articles
Huffman, K. T., Grossnickle, W. F., Cope, J. G., & Huffman, K. P. (1995). Litter reduction: A review and integration of the literature. Special Issue: Litter control and recycling. Environment and Behavior, 27, 2, 153-183.
Examined 40 articles and 59 studies that employed either an antecedent strategy (ATS) or consequence strategy (CQS) to integrate behavioral and social changes in communities and i…

Psychology's Role in the Conserving Society

Articles
Oskamp, S. (1983). Psychology's role in the conserving society. Population and Environment Behavioral and Social Issues, 6, 4, 255-293.
Reviews the literature on areas of progress in the environmental problems that affect people's lives and behaviors. It is suggested that psychologists and other social scientists …

Reactance and Norm Appeal in Anti-Littering Messages

Articles
Reich, J. W., & Robertson, J. L. (1979). Reactance and norm appeal in anti-littering messages. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 1, 91-101.
Conducted 3 experiments with a total of 390 children (over age 10 yrs) patronizing public swimming pool concessions to test a model of how anti-littering messages vary in the kind…

The Link between Recycling and Litter: A Field Study

Articles
Reams, M. A., Geaghan, J. P., & Gendron, R. C. (1996). The link between recycling and litter: A field study. Environment and Behavior, 28, 1, 92-110.
Determine whether residential recycling programs introduced an additional benefit (reduced litter) and evaluated the proposition that such programs should impart to participants a…

Litter Reduction: How Effective is the New York State Bottle Bill?

Articles
Levitt, L., & Leventhal, G. (1986). Litter reduction: How effective is the New York State Bottle Bill?. Environment and Behavior, 18, 4, 467-479.
Examined the effectiveness of the anti-litter New York Bottle Bill by using a multiple-time series design in which 7 observations of the number of returnable and nonreturnable bot…

The Use of Stimulus Control over Littering in a Natural Setting

Articles
O’Neill, G. W., Blanck, L. S., & Joyner, M. A. (1980). The use of stimulus control over littering in a natural setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 2, 379-381.
A conventional litter receptacle (55-gallon drum) and a specially designed receptacle consisting of a 55-gallon drum adorned with a plywood "hat" were alternated in 2 areas of a f…

The Unintended Effects of a Posted Sign on Littering Attitudes and Stated Intentions

Articles
Horsley, A. D. (1988). The unintended effects of a posted sign on littering attitudes and stated intentions. Journal of Environmental Education, 19, 3, 10-14.
The effects of an anti-littering sign that read "We treat litterbugs like all insects" were compared with those for a sign that read "Please save our landscape; don't litter." Ss …

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