CBSM Recommends

Dynamic norms promote sustainable behaviour, even if it is counternormative.

Articles
Sparkman, G., & Walton, G.M., (2017). Dynamic norms promote sustainable behaviour, even if it is counternormative. Psychological Science, 28(11), 1663-1674.
It is well known that people conform to normative information about other people’s current attitudes and behaviors. Do they also conform to dynamic norms—information about how oth…

Normative, Gain and Hedonic Goal Frames Guiding Environmental Behavior

Articles
Lindenberg, S., & Steg, L. (2007). Normative, Gain and Hedonic Goal Frames Guiding Environmental Behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 63(1), 117-137. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2007.00499.x.
This article discusses new developments about goal-dependent framing and multiple goal frames (sometimes also called "multiple motives"), which are highly relevant for understandi…

Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment

Articles
Cialdini, R. (2003). Crafting normative messages to protect the environment. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(4), 105-109. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.01242.
It is widely recognized that communications that activate social norms can be effective in producing societally beneficial conduct. Not so well recognized are the circumstances un…

An Introduction to Deviance-Regulation Theory: The Effect of Behavioral Norms on Message Framing

Articles
Blanton, H., Stuart, A., & VandenEijnden, R. (2001). An introduction to deviance-regulation theory: The effect of behavioral norms on message framing. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(7), 848-858. doi:10.1177/0146167201277007.
Introduces a social judgment framework the authors term deviance-regulation theory. This theory proposes that people self-regulate more on the basis of the perceived social conseq…

Reactance and Norm Appeal in Anti-Littering Messages

Articles
Reich, J. W., & Robertson, J. L. (1979). Reactance and norm appeal in anti-littering messages. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 1, 91-101.
Conducted 3 experiments with a total of 390 children (over age 10 yrs) patronizing public swimming pool concessions to test a model of how anti-littering messages vary in the kind…

Littering as a Function of Prior Litter and the Presence or Absence of Prohibitive Signs

Articles
Reiter, S. M. & Samuel, W. (1980). Littering as a function of prior litter and the presence or absence of prohibitive signs . Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 10, 1, 45-55.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect on littering behavior of (1) two ways of antilitter signs and (2) the condition of the environment (littered vs. unlit…

Effective Public Service Announcements: Linking Social Norms to Visual Memory Cues

Articles
Bator, R. J. (1997). Effective public service announcements: Linking social norms to visual memory cues. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 58, 6-B,
The purpose of this research was to create and test the effectiveness of antilittering public service announcements (PSAs) that linked different types of visual cues to social dis…

An Analysis of Normative Messages in Signs at Recreation Settings

Articles
Winter, Patricia L.; Cialdini, Robert B.; Bator, Renee J.; Rhoads, Kelton; Sagarin, Brad J. (1998). An Analysis of Normative Messages in Signs at Recreation Settings. Journal of Interpretation Research, 3, 1, 39-47.
A systematic evaluation of signs and messages at 42 recreation areas in California and Arizona focused on type of site, managing agency, density of message locales, sign attribute…

Effective Dissemination of Energy-Related Information: Applying Social Psychology and Evaluation Research

Articles
Dennis, M., Soderstrom, E.J., Koncinski, W.S., Cavanaugh, B. (1990). Effective Dissemination of Energy-Related Information: Applying Social Psychology and Evaluation Research. American Psychologist, 45(10), 1109.
Discusses the limitations of previous energy conservation programs in affecting the behavior of individual consumers. Suggests that the rational-economic model upon which they wer…

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