CBSM Recommends

Smarter Travel in Outer London: Integrated Marketing in the UK

Cases
Developed in two phases, the Smarter Travel initiative had an overall goal of decreasing the number of trips made by car in the Outer Boroughs of London, promoting walking, cyclin…
CBSM Recommends

Portland’s Smart Trips Welcome Program

Cases
After creating Smart Trips, a successful transportation program for residents of Portland, Oregon, the Bureau of Transportation chose to redefine the program, shifting its focus t…

The Effects of an Ambiguous, Negative Sign Prompt and a Clearly-Stated Positive Sign Prompt on Intentions to Litter

Cases
Horsley, A. D. (1988). The unintended effects of a posted sign on littering attitudes and stated intentions. Journal of Environmental Education, 19, 3, 10-14.
A literature review revealed that sign prompts can be effective in reducing the amount of litter. In order to further investigate the effects of prompts, a questionnaire was given…

Using a Normative Appeal to Control Litter at a Public Swimming Pool

Cases
Reich, J. W., & Robertson, J. L. (1979). Reactance and norm appeal in anti-littering messages. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 1, 91-101.
A literature review revealed that a statement that puts an extreme demand on a person is likely to elicit the undesirable behavior. On the other hand, a statement that creates a n…

The Influence of Message Framing On University Student's Intent to Participate in Sustainable Behavior

Cases
Davis, J. J. (1995). The effects of message framing on response to environmental communications. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 72, 2, 285-299.
A literature review revealed how framing a communication can affect an individual's intent to participate in sustainable behaviors. Specifically, three types of message framing we…

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