Role of Group Orientation and Descriptive Norms on Water Conservation Attitudes and Behaviors

Lapinski, M., Rimal, R., DeVries, R., & Lee, E. (2007). Role of group orientation and descriptive norms on water conservation attitudes and behaviors. Health Communication, 22(2), 133-142.
Social norms have been shown to impact behaviors, but with mixed results. The theory of normative social behavior delineates factors that moderate the relationship between descrip…

Explaining Proenvironmental Intention and Behavior by Personal Norms and the Theory of Planned Behavior

Harland, P., Staats, H. & Wilke-Henk, A. M. (1999). Explaining proenvironmental intention and behavior by personal norms and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 12, 2505-2528.
The value of personal norms (S. H. Schwartz, 1977) for proenvironmental behavior has been demonstrated in previous studies (J. Vining and A. Ebreo, 1992), but not in addition to t…

Situational and Personality Factors as Direct or Personal Norm Mediated Predictors of Pro-Environmental Behavior

Harland, P., Staats, H., & Wilke, H. (2007). Situational and personality factors as direct or personal norm mediated predictors of pro-environmental behavior: Questions derived from norm-activation theory. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 29(4), 323-334.
Studies that use the norm activation theory (Schwartz, 1977) to explain pro-environmental behavior often focus on personal norms and on two situational activators, i.e., awareness…

Invoking Social Norms: A Social Psychology Perspective on Improving Hotels Linen-reuse Programs

Goldstein, N., Griskevicius, V., & Cialdini, R. (2007). Invoking social norms: A social psychology perspective on improving hotels' linen-reuse programs. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 48(2), 145-150. doi:10.1177/0010880407299542.
Social psychology theory can be applied to such mundane purposes as encouraging guests to reuse their washroom towels. In contrast to the appeals now in use to persuade guests to …

A Room with a Viewpoint: Using Social Norms to Motivate Environmental Conservation in Hotels

Goldstein, N., Cialdini, R., & Griskevicius, V. (2008). A room with a viewpoint: Using social norms to motivate environmental conservation in hotels. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(3), 472-482. doi:10.1086/586910.
Two field experiments examined the effectiveness of signs requesting hotel guests' participation in an environmental conservation program. Appeals employing descriptive norms (e.g…

Personal Normative Beliefs, Antisocial Behavior, and Residential Water Conservation

Corral-Verdugo, V., & Frías-Armenta, M. (2006). Personal Normative Beliefs, Antisocial Behavior, and Residential Water Conservation. Environment and Behavior, 38(3), 406-421. doi:10.1177/0013916505282272.
A total of 177 residents in two Mexican cities responded to an instrument assessing (a) personal normative beliefs about water conservation, (b) beliefs about the efficacy of wate…

Comparing Normative Influences as Determinants of Environmentally Conscious Behaviours Between the USA and Japan

Ando, K., Ohnuma, S., & Chang, E. (2007). Comparing normative influences as determinants of environmentally conscious behaviours between the USA and Japan. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 10(3), 171-178. doi:10.1111/j.1467-839X.2007.00223.x.
The present study explored the influences of subjective and descriptive norms on environmentally conscious behaviours between the USA and Japan. It was predicted that subjective n…

Twenty Years After Hines, Hungerford, and Tomera: A New Meta-Analysis of psycho-Social Determinants of Pro-Environmental Behaviour

Bamberg, S., & Möser, G. (2007). Twenty years after Hines, Hungerford, and Tomera: A new meta-analysis of psycho-social determinants of pro-environmental behaviour. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27(1), 14-25.
The goal of the present paper is a replication as well as an extension of the Hines et al. [(1986/87). Analysis and synthesis of research on responsible environmental behaviour: A…

Using Community-Based Social Marketing Techniques to Enhance Environmental Regulation

Kennedy, A. (2010). Using Community-Based Social Marketing Techniques to Enhance Environmental Regulation. Sustainability, 2(4), 1138-1160
This article explores how environmental regulation may be improved through the use of community-based social marketing techniques. While regulation is an important tool of sustain…

The Relative Effectiveness of Models and Prompts on Energy Conservation: A Field Experiment in a Shower Room

Aronson, E. & O'Leary, M. (1982-83). The relative effectiveness of models and prompts on energy conservation: A field experiment in a shower room. Journal of Environmental Systems, 12, 3, 219-224.
Signs were placed in the field house shower rooms of a university campus exhorting people to conserve water and energy by turning off the water while soaping up. Making the signs…

Virtual North America

Introductory & Advanced Workshops

January 10th - 19th, 2022

Learn More
Site Courtesy of
McKenzie-Mohr & Associates

Expertise in Community-Based Social Marketing